Simultaneously Optimization of Solar Water Heater Design Parameters Considering Consumption Patterns

Document Type : Research Paper



Hot water distribution for different purposes is one of the most important factors which have not been studied in solar water heater design. The main goal in the solar water heater installation is to receive the maximum solar radiation on a unit surface of the solar collector without considering the hot water distribution. In order to achieve the maximum solar absorption with higher efficiency, the optimum collector orientation can be determined by modification of basic solar calculations using consumption time interval and storage tank temperature. The effect of latitude, longitude and altitude on the optimum collector orientation is well investigated in classical solar calculations but the optimal collector performance is also dependent on several other factors concerning the hot water distribution. The main objective of the paper is the simultaneously optimization of design parameters such as collector direction and storage tank capacity by consideration of the consumption pattern. The results show increasing up to 7% in annual energy saving and 1.5% in economic saving.


[1]Chang, K.K., Minardi, A. (1980) “Optimization formulation for solar heating systems”. Sol. Energy, Vol. 24, pp.99-103.
[2] Ghoneim, A.A., Fisch, N.,Ammer, A.S.A., Hahne, E. (1993).“Design of  a solar water heating system for Alexandria”. Egypt. Renew. Energ., Vol. 3,  pp.577-583.
[3]Shariah, A.M., Lof, G.O.G. (1996).“The optimization of tank –volume –to-collector-area ratio for a thermosyphone solar water heater”. Renew. Energ., Vol. 7(3),  pp.289-300.
[4] Krause, M., Vajen, K., Wiese, F., Ackerman, H. (2002).“Investigation on optimization large solar thermal system”. Sol. Energy, Vol 73,  pp.217-225.
[5] Loomans, M., Visser, H. (2002).“Application of the Genetic algorithm for optimization of large solar hot water system”. Sol. Energy, Vol. 72(5),  pp.427-439.
[6] Kalogirou, S.A. (2004).“Optimization of solar systems using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm”. Appl. Energ., Vol. 77,  pp.383-405.
[7] Chow, T.T., Fong, K.F., Chan, A.L.S., Lin, Z.,(2006).“Potential application of centralized solar water heating system for a high- rise residential building in Hong Kong”. Appl. Energ., Vol. 83, pp.42-54.
[8] Hobbi, A., Sidiqui, K. (2009).“Optimal design of a forced circulation solar water heating system for a residual unit in cold climate using TRNSYS”.Sol. Energy, Vol. 83, pp.700-714.
[9] Braun, J.E., Klein, S.A., Mitchell, J.W. (1981).“Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating”.Sol. Energy, Vol. 26, pp.403-411.
[10] Michaelides, I.M., Wilson, D.R. (1996).“Optimum design criteria for solar hot water system”. Renew. Energ., Vol. 9(1-4), pp.649-652.
[11] Abdel, A.M., Mohamad, M.A. (2001).“Potential of solar energy utilization in the textile industry – a case study”. Renew. Energ., Vol. 23, pp.685-694.
[12] Mills, D., Morrison, G.L. (2003).“Optimization of minimum backup solar water heating system”.Sol. Energy, Vol. 74, pp.505-511.
[13] Zeghib, I., Chaker, A. (2011).“Simulation of a solar domestic water heating system”. Energy Procedia, Vol. 6, pp. 292-301.
[14] Michelson, E. (1982).“Multivariate optimization of a solar water heating system using the simplex method”.Sol. Energy, Vol. 29, pp.89-99.
[15] Matrawy, K.K., Farkas, I. (1997).“New technique for short term storage sizing”. Renew. Energ. Vol. 11: pp.129-141.
[16] Panteliou, S., Dentsoras, A.,Daskalopoulas, E. (1996).“Use of expert system for the selection and the design of solar domestic hot water system”. Sol. Energ., Vol. 57(1), pp.57: 1-8.
[17]Hawlader, M.N.A., Ng, K.C., Chandratilleke, I.T., Sharma, D.,Koay, K.H.L. (1987).“Economic evaluation of a solar water heating system”.Energ.Convers.Manage., Vol. 27, pp.197-204.
[18] Kulkarni, G.N.,Kedare, A.B., Bandyyopadhyay, S. (2007).“Determination of design space and optimization of solar water heating systems”.Sol. Energy, Vol. 81, pp.958-968.
[19] Barely, C.D., Winn, C.B. (1978).“Optimal sizing of solar collectors by the method of relative areas”.Sol. Energy, Vol. 21, pp.279-289.
[20] Gordon, J.M., Rabl, A. (1982).“Design analysis and optimization of industrial process heat plants without storage”. Sol. Energy, Vol. 28, pp.519-530.
[21] Boer, K.W. (1978).“Payback of solar system”.Sol. Energy, Vol. 20, pp.225-232.
[22] Kim, Y.D., Thu, K., Bhatia, H.K., Bhatia, S.C., Ng, K.C. (2012).“Thermal analysis and performance of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation”. Sol. Energy, Vol. 86, pp.1378-1395.
[23] Buckels, W.E., Klein, S.A. (1980).“Analysis of solar domestic hot water heaters”.Sol. Energy, Vol. 25, pp.417-424.
[24] Jordan, U., Vajen, K. (2000).“Influence of the DHW load profile on the fractional energy saving: a case study of solar combi-system with TRNSYS simulation”. Proceeding of Euro- sun'2000on Copenhagen, Denmark.
[25] Spur, R.,Fiala, D.,Nevrala, D.,Probert, D. (2006).“Influence of the domestic hot-water daily draw-off profile on the performance of a hot-water store”. Appl. Energ., Vol. 83, pp.749-773.
[26] Kulkarni, G.N.,Kedare, S.B.,Bandyopadhyay, S. (2009).“Optimization of solar ter heating system through water replishment”.Energ.Convers.Manage.,Vol. 50, pp.837-846.
[27] Duffie, J.A., Beckman, W.A. (1991).“Solar Engineering of Thermal Process”.Second ed. Wiley, New York.
[28] Kalogirou, S. (2009).“Solar Energy Engineering: Processes and Systems”. Academic Press, Elsevier Science.
[30] Fanney, A.H., Klein, S.A. (1988).“Thermal performance comparisons for solar hot water system subjected to various collector and heat exchanger flow rate”. Sol. Energy, Vol. 40(1), pp.1-11.