Designing of a four-level closed loop Supply Chain Network with an Integration Approach for Economic, Environmental, and Social Responsibility about Employees

Document Type : Industry Article


1 Qom university

2 MSc student of Industrial Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, University of Qom

3 Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Technology and engineering, University of Qom, Qom, Iran


In this paper, a new mixed integer mathematical model is developed for desifning a sustainable closed loop supply chain management problem. In this model, some real world manufacturing features are taken into account like exonomical, environmental and social responsibility indexes. The main novelty of propose model the consideration of three key indexes of local and sustainable job opportunities and also creating new job opportunities in terms of social responsibility of a supply chain. Moreover, the greenness of a supply chain in terms of CO2 emmisions are investigated through the developed model. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed mathematical model, some numerical examples are generated randomly, and solved using the CPLEX solver on Gams optimization package. In addition, some magerials insightsd are included in the paper by performing deep sensitivity analysis of the esseintial parameters. Based on obtained results, considering all sustainbiliy aspects of a supply chain in a concurrent way can reduce costs, significantly.


Main Subjects

[1] M. Hussain, M. M. Ajmal, A. Gunasekaran, and M. Khan,  "Exploration of social sustainability in healthcare supply chain" , Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 203, 2018, pp. 977-989.
[2] I. Goldin, and K. Reinert, "Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, migration, and policy". 2nd Edition, World Bank Publications, 2007, pp. 780-890. 
[3] M. L. Tseng, K. J. Wu, A. S. Chiu, M. K. Lim, and K. Tan, "Service innovation in sustainable product service systems: improving performance under linguistic preferences", International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 203, 2018, pp. 414-425.
 [4] J. Huang, "Eco-Efficiency and an overview of green productivity", In Conference on Enhancing Competitiveness Through Green Productivity, 2001,  pp. 25-27.
]5[ل. الفت، ع. خاتمی فیروزآبادی، و ر. خداوردی،" مقتضیات تحقق مدیریت زنجیره تامین سبز درصنعت خودروسازی ایران"، فصلنامه علوم مدیریت ایران، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، سال 6، شماره 21،1390 ،صفحه 123-140.
]6[ح. صفاری، الف. ماکویی، س. پیشوایی، و و. محمودیان،  "یک مدل چندهدفه استوار برای طراحی شبکه زنجیره تأمین با در نظرگیری جریان رو به جلو و عقب و مسئولیت‌پذیری اجتماعی"، مجله مدل‌سازی در مهندسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سال 14، شماره 47، 1395، صفحه 171- 185.
[7] N. R. Bagheri, R. Baradarankazemzade, and r. Asadi, "Identifying and ranking of the success factors in automotive reverse logistics through interpretive structural modeling" (ism), 2013,  pp. 21-40.
[8] B. Mota, M. I. Gomes, A. Carvalho, and A. P. Barbosa-Povoa, "Towards supply chain sustainability: economic, environmental and social design and planning", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 105, 2015, pp. 14-27.
[9]  L. A. Keeys, and M. Huemann,  "Project benefits co-creation: Shaping sustainable development benefits", International Journal of Project Management, 35(6), 2017, pp. 1196-1212.
  ]10[ع. حسنی، "برنامه ریزی تصادفی دو مرحله ای مبتنی بر روش  تقریب میانگین نمونه و الگوریتم تجزیه بندرز شتاب یافته برای طراحی شبکه زنجیره تأمین حلقه بسته تحت عدم قطعیت"، مجله مدل‌سازی در مهندسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سال 15، شماره 49،1396،  صفحه 218- 234.
  ]11[و.  نعمتی ابوذر، و م. بهشتی نیا، "ترکیب روشهای فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی فازی و تاپسیس فازی برای انتخاب تامین-کنندگان )مطالعه موردی: شرکت تبلیغاتی("، مجله مدل‌سازی در مهندسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سال 15، شماره 48،1396 ، صفحه 218- 229.
[12] T.Wilkerson," Best practices in implementing green supply chains", In North America Supply Chain World, Conference and Exposition, Vol. 5, April 2005, pp.49-67.
[13]Y. Luo, M. Zhou, and R. J. Caudill, "An integrated e-supply chain model for agile and environmentally conscious manufacturing", IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 6(4),‌ ‌2001, pp. 377-386.
[14] M. Dotoli, M. P. Fanti, C. Meloni, and M. Zhou, "Design and optimization of integrated e-supply chain for agile and environmentally conscious manufacturing", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and Humans, 36(1), 2006, pp. 62-75.
[15] J. Q. F. Neto,  J. M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J. A. van Nunen, and  E. van Heck, "Designing and evaluating sustainable logistics networks", International Journal of Production Economics, 111 (2), 2008, pp.195-208 .
[16] A. Ramudhin, A. Chaabane, M. Kharoune, and M. Paquet, "Carbon market sensitive green supply chain network design", In Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management,  IEEM 2008, IEEE International Conference on, 2008,  pp. 1093-1097.
[17] T. P. N. Le, and T. R. Lee, "Model selection with considering the CO2 emission alone the global supply chain", Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 2013,  pp.1-20.
[18] Y. Bouzembrak, H. Allaoui, G. Goncalves, and H. Bouchriha, "A multi-objective green supply chain network design", In Logistics (LOGISTIQUA), 2011 4th International Conference on, 2011,  pp. 357-361.
[19] M. S. Pishvaee, J. Razmi, and S. A. Torabi, "Robust possibilistic programming for socially responsible supply chain network design: A new approach", Fuzzy sets and systems, Vol. 206, 2012, pp. 1-20.
[20] M. Ramezani, M. Bashiri, and  R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, "A new multi-objective stochastic model for a forward/reverse logistic network design with responsiveness and quality level", Applied Mathematical Modelling, 37(1), 2013, pp. 328-344.
 [21] S. G. Tayyar, D. Roy, and S. F. Ghaderi, "Economic, environmental and social responsible supply chain design using differential evolution multi objective algorithm", In Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), 2013 IEEE International Conference on, 2013, pp. 1617-1621.
[22] P. Ma, J. Shang,  and  H. Wang, "Enhancing corporate social responsibility: Contract design under information asymmetry", Omega, Vol. 67, 2017,  pp. 19-30.
[23] C. Cambero, and T. Sowlati, "Incorporating social benefits in multi-objective optimization of forest-based bioenergy and biofuel supply chains",  Applied Energy, Vol. 178, 2016, pp. 721-735.
[24] M. Varsei, and  S.  Polyakovskiy, "Sustainable supply chain network design: A case of the wine industry in Australia", Omega, Vol. 66, 2017, pp. 236-247.
[25] R. Ramezanian,  and  Z. Behboodi, "Blood supply chain network design under uncertainties in supply and demand considering social aspects", Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol. 104, 2017, pp.  69-82.
[26] K. Devika,  A. Jafarian, and  V. Nourbakhsh, "Designing a sustainable closed-loop supply chain network based on triple bottom line approach: A comparison of metaheuristics hybridization techniques", European Journal of Operational Research,  235(3), 2014, pp. 594-615.
[27] C. Miret, P. Chazara, L. Montastruc, S. Negny, and  S. Domenech, "Design of bioethanol green supply chain: Comparison between first and second generation biomass concerning economic, environmental and social criteria", Computers & Chemical Engineering; 85(4), 2016, pp. 16-35.
]28[ ستاک، و. کریمی، و م. مومنی طارمسری،" مساله مسیریابی وسایل نقلیه دو هدفه با در نظر گرفتن آلودگی"، دانشگاه صنعتی خواجه نصیر الدین طوسی، شماره 18،1393، صفحه 48-62.
[29] K. P. Nurjanni, M. S. Carvalho, and L. Costa, "Green supply chain design: A mathematical modeling approach based on a multi-objective optimization model", International Journal of Production Economics, 2017, pp. 183-197.
[30] F. Wang, X.  Lai, and  N.  Shi, "A multi-objective optimization for green supply chain network design", Decision Support Systems; 51(26), 2011,  pp. 2-9.
[31] D. Millet, "Designing a sustainable reverse logistics channel: the 18 generic structures framework", Journal of Cleaner Production; 19(5), 2011,  pp. 88-97.
[32] M.S. Pishvaee, M. Rabbani,  and S.A. Torabi, "A robust optimization approach to closed-loop supply chain network design under uncertainty", Applied Mathematical Modelling; 35(6), 2011,  pp. 37-49.
[33] V. Özkir, and H. Basligil, "Multi-objective optimization of closed-loop supply chains in uncertain environment", Journal of Cleaner Production, 2012, pp.32-67.
[34] D. Kannan, A. Diabat, M. Alrefaei, K. Govindan, and  G. Yong, "A carbon footprint based reverse logistics network design model", Resources, conservation and recycling, 67)7(, 2012, pp. 5-9.
[35] S.H. Amin, and  G. Zhang, " A multi-objective facility location model for closed-loop supply chain network under uncertain demand and return", Applied Mathematical Modelling, 37(6), 2013, pp. 4165–4176.
[36] D. Yue, M. Slivinsky, J. Sumpter, and F. You, "Sustainable design and operation of cellulosic bioelectricity supply chain networks with life cycle economic, environmental, and social optimization", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,  53(10), 2014, pp. 4008-4029.
[37] K. Govindan, A. Jafarian, and V. Nourbakhsh, "Designing a sustainable supply chain network integrated with vehicle routing: a comparison of hybrid swarm intelligence metaheuristics", Computers & Operations Research, 2018, pp. 4-12.
[38] A. A. Taleizadeh, F. Haghighi, and  S. T. A. Niaki, "Modeling and solving a sustainable closed loop supply chain problem with pricing decisions and discounts on returned products",  Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 207, 2019, pp. 163-181.