بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر اضافه ولتاژهای گذرای ناشی از صاعقه در شبکه فشار ضعیف و نقش SPD منصوبه در پای پست در حفاظت از شبکه‌

نوع مقاله : مقاله برق

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ‌ارشد، دانشکده مهندسی برق و کامپیوتر، دانشگاه سمنان

2 استاد، دانشکده مهندسی برق و کامپیوتر، دانشگاه سمنان

چکیده

موج‌های ضربه ناشی از برخورد مستقیم و یا غیرمستقیم صاعقه به شبکه‌های توزیع، تجهیزات شبکه و مصرف‌کنندگان را تهدید می‌کنند. پارامتر‌های متعددی بر روی شدت اضافه‌ ولتاژهای گذرای ناشی از صاعقه (surge)، مؤثر هستند و مطالعات قابل توجهی نیز در این حوزه به انجام رسیده است. اما، اثر برخی پارامترها بر ضربه‌های گذرا در شبکه فشار ضعیف مورد بررسی قرار نگرفته است. از جمله این موارد می‌توان به استفاده از کابل خودنگهدار بجای سیم لخت هوایی و اثر نول‌های توزیع شده در طول فیدر فشارضعیف اشاره کرد. لذا، در این مقاله به بررسی نقش دو عامل ذکر شده، بر شدت اضافه ولتاژهای گذرا در شبکه توزیع فشارضعیف پرداخته می‌شود.

وجود دستگاه محافظ در برابر موج گذرا (SPD) در ثانویه ترانسفورماتور توزیع، تاثیر قابل توجهی بر حفاظت از ترانسفورماتور توزیع در برابر برخورد مستقیم و غیر مستقیم صاعقه به شبکه توزیع فشار ضعیف دارد. اما تا کنون برخی از تاثیرات این SPD بر ضربه‌های گذرا در ورودی مشترکین شبکه توزیع فشارضعیف، مورد بررسی قرار نگرفته است. لذا در این مقاله، نقش مثبت و منفی SPD نصب شده در پای پست توزیع، بر مشترکین موجود بر روی فیدرهای توزیع فشار ضعیف مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. بر اساس بررسی‌ها مشخص می‌شود که SPD نصب شده در پای پست بر کدام مشترکین و در چه شرایطی اثر مثبت و یا منفی دارد. بر اساس مطالعات این نتیجه حاصل شد که وجود SPD در پای پست، برای برخی ازمشترکین باعث کاهش شدت موج ضربه و برای برخی دیگر باعث افزایش شدت آن می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the factors affecting the transient overvoltages caused by lightning in the low-voltage network and the role of the SPD installed in the substation in protecting the network

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Moradi 1
  • Asghar Akbari Foroud 2
1 M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Surges caused by direct or indirect lightning strikes on distribution networks threaten network equipment and consumers. Several parameters affect the intensity of transient over-voltages caused by lightning (surge), and significant studies have been done in this field. However, the effect of some parameters on the surges in the low-voltage network has not been investigated. Among these cases, we can mention using self-supporting cable instead of open wire and the effect of neutrals distributed along the low-voltage feeder. Therefore, in this article, the role of the two mentioned factors on the intensity of transient over-voltages in the low-voltage distribution network is investigated.

The presence of a surge protective device (SPD) in the secondary of the distribution transformer has a significant effect on the protection of the distribution transformer against direct and indirect lightning strikes to the low-voltage distribution network. But so far, some of the effects of this SPD on surges at the input of low-voltage consumers have not been investigated. Therefore, in this article, the positive and negative role of the SPD installed in the distribution substation on the consumers is investigated. Based on the investigations, it is determined that the SPD installed at the substation has a positive or negative effect on which subscribers and under what conditions. Based on the studies, it was concluded that the presence of SPD at the distribution substation reduces the intensity of the surge for some subscribers and increases the intensity of the surge for others.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Direct lightning strike
  • Indirect lightning strike
  • Low voltage network
  • Surge Protective Device (SPD)
  • Self-supporting cables
  • Distributed neutrals
[1] Kasza, Zoltan, and Karoly Kovacs. "Risk Analysis About Lightning Protection for Buildings Focusing on Risk of Loss of Human Life." Procedia Manufacturing 32 (2019): 458-65.
[2] Tenzin, Namgay. "Risk Assessment of Buildings Due to Lightning Impulses: A Case Study at College of Science and Technology." Bhutan Journal of Research and Development, no. 2 (2023).
[3] Darveniza, M, Z Flisowski, Alexander Kern, E-U Landers, G LoPiparo, C Mazzetti, A Rousseau, and J Sherlock. "Application Problems of the Probabilistic Approach to the Assessment of Risk for Structures and Services."  (2005).
[4] Napolitano, F, F Tossani, JDR Penaloza, A Borghetti, G Lo Piparo, C Mazzetti, and CA Nucci. "Statistical Assessment of Lightning-Induced Overvoltages in Low Voltage Lines." Paper presented at the 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC/I&CPS Europe), 2018.
[5] Ametani, A, and T Kawamura. "A Method of a Lightning Surge Analysis Recommended in Japan Using Emtp." IEEE Transactions on power delivery 20, no. 2 (2005): 867-75.
[6] Safaei, Faridodoin, and Mohsen Niasati. "Analysis of Transformer Insulation Risk Due to Back Flashover Lightning on High Voltage Substations by Considering the Effect of Environmental Pollution." Modeling in Engineering  (2023). https://doi.org/10.22075/jme.2023.31377.2505.
[7] Metwally, Ibrahim A, and Fridolin H Heidler. "Computation of Transient Overvoltages in Low-Voltage Installations During Direct Strikes to Different Lightning Protection Systems." IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility 49, no. 3 (2007): 602-13.
[8] Georgilakis, PS, and AG Kagiannas. "A Novel Validated Solution for Lightning and Surge Protection of Distribution Transformers." International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 63 (2014): 373-81.
[9] Ndungu, C, J Nderu, L Ngoo, and P Hinga. "A Study of the Root Causes of High Failure Rate of Distribution Transformer-a Case Study." International Journal of Engineering and Science 6, no. 2 (2017): 14-18.
[10] Subcormnittee, Dielectric Tests. "Secondary (Low-Side) Surges in Distribution Transformers." IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 7, no. 2 (1992): 746.
[11] Amir Allame, and Asghar Akbari Foroud. "Maintenance Scheduling of Wind Power Plants from the Viewpoint of the Power Plant Owner with the Aim of Minimizing the Economic Loss." Modeling in Engineering  (2023). https://doi.org/10.22075/jme.2023.31337.2498.
[12] Mikropoulos, Pantelis N, Thomas E Tsovilis, Zafiris Politis, and Argyris G Kagiannas. "Evaluation of Fast-Front Overvoltages Arising at a 20/0.4 Kv Distribution Transformer."  (2010).
[13] Plummer, CharlesW, GL Goedde, Elmer L Pettit, Jeffrey S Godbee, and Michael G Hennessey. "Reduction in Distribution Transformer Failure Rates and Nuisance Outages Using Improved Lightning Protection Concepts." IEEE transactions on power delivery 10, no. 2 (1995): 768-77.
[14] Abdallah, Mohamed A. "The Effect of the Secondary Loads on the Voltage Surges Transferred through Distribution Transformers." Paper presented at the Proceedings of 2005 International Symposium on Electrical Insulating Materials, 2005.(ISEIM 2005). 2005.
[15] Fernando, MARM, and Vernon Cooray. "Lightning Surges at Distribution Transformer Secondary." Paper presented at the 2010 5th International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, 2010.
[16] Goedde, GL, Lj A Kojovic, and JJ Woodworth. "Surge Arrester Characteristics That Provide Reliable Overvoltage Protection in Distribution and Low-Voltage Systems." Paper presented at the 2000 Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting (Cat. no. 00CH37134), 2000.
[17] De Conti, Alberto, Fernando H Silveira, and Silvério Visacro. "On the Role of Transformer Grounding and Surge Arresters on Protecting Loads from Lightning-Induced Voltages in Complex Distribution Networks." Electric Power Systems Research 113 (2014): 204-12.
[18] Datsios, ZG, PN Mikropoulos, Z Politis, AG Kagiannas, and TE Tsovilis. "Protection of Distribution Transformer against Arising or Transferred Fast-Front Overvoltages: Effects of Surge Arrester Connection Conductors Length." Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering (ISH), Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2013.
[19] Tsukamoto, Naoyuki. "Surge Withstand Capability of Metal Oxide Varistors for 10/350 µ S Waveform." Paper presented at the 2011 International Symposium on Lightning Protection, 2011.
[20] Devices—Part, Low-Voltage Surge Protective. "11: Surge Protective Devices Connected to Low-Voltage Power Systems—Requirements and Test Methods, Document Iec 61643-11." Geneva, Switzerland  (2011).
[21] Rousseau, A, and T Perche. "Coordination of Surge Arresters in the Low Voltage Field." Paper presented at the Proceedings of INTELEC 95. 17th International Telecommunications Energy Conference, 1995.
[22] Martinez-Velasco, J.A. Power System Transients: Parameter Determination. CRC press, 2017.
[23] Seyyedbarzegar, Seyyed Meysam, Mohammad Mirzaie, and Masume Khodsuz. "A New Approach to Electrical Modeling of Surge Arrester Considering Temperature Effect on Vi Characteristic." Measurement 111 (2017): 295-306.
[24] Siemens. "Overvoltage Protection Devices." In Siemens LV 10. Germany, 2019.
[25] Siemens. "Station and Intermediate Class Surge Arresters." In Energy Management, 76. Germany, 2015.
[26] Sargent, Michael A, and Mat Darveniza. "Tower Surge Impedance." IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, no. 5 (1969): 680-87.
[27] Braz, Celso Pereira, Alexandre Piantini, Miltom Shigihara, and Mário Cesar do Espírito Santo Ramos. "Analysis of the Disruptive Effect Model for the Prediction of the Breakdown Characteristics of Distribution Insulators under Non-Standard Lightning Impulses." Paper presented at the 2012 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), 2012.
[28] Das, JC. "Surges Transferred through Transformers." Paper presented at the Conference Record of the 2002 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference (Cat. No. 02CH37352), 2002.
[29] Piparo, Giovanni Battista Lo, Roberto Pomponi, Tomasz Kisielewicz, Carlo Mazzetti, Alain Rousseau, and Vincent Crevenat. "Performance Evaluation of a Coordinated Surge Protective Devices System." Paper presented at the 2020 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2020 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC/I&CPS Europe), 2020.
[30] Kisielewicz, Tomasz, Giovanni Battista Lo Piparo, and Carlo Mazzetti. "Simplified Approach for Protection of Apparatus Powered by an Hv/Lv Transformer against Lightning Strokes to the Structure." Paper presented at the 2022 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2022 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC/I&CPS Europe), 2022.
[31] Ametani, A, and T Kawamura. "A Method of a Lightning Surge Analysis Recommended in Japan Using Emtp." IEEE Transactions on power delivery 20, no. 2 (2005): 867-75.
[32] Rusck, Sune. "Induced Lightning over-Voltage on Power Transmission Lines with Special Reference to the Overvoltage Protection of Low-Voltage Networks." Trans. Royal Institute of Technology 120 (1958).
[33] Yasui, Shinji, Taisei Kano, Nawakun Triruttanapiruk, and Takashi Tsuchida. "Lightning Surge Overvoltage Protection for Low-Voltage Equipment Placed Outdoors in Tt System." IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility  (2023).
[34] Aravanis, TI, EC Pyrgioti, and IF Gonos. "Lightning-Induced Overvoltages in the Hellenic Electricity Distribution Network." Paper presented at the 2016 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE), 2016.
[35] De Conti, A, and S Visacro. "Evaluation of Lightning Surges Transferred from Medium Voltage to Low-Voltage Networks." IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution 152, no. 3 (2005): 351-56.
[36] Dugan, Roger C, and Stephen D Smith. "Low-Voltage-Side Current-Surge Phenomena in Single-Phase Distribution Transformer Systems." IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 3, no. 2 (1988): 637-47.